Himself a stove-maker: how to make a Russian stove in the country

Himself a stove-maker: how to make a Russian stove in the country

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With the rapid growth of individual construction, the Russian stove with a stove bench regained its relevance. However, today they are not known for completely perfect systems for heating private houses and summer cottages. For example, electric heating, with all its positive aspects, ceases to be effective in case of a banal blackout, which is not uncommon for suburban areas.

It is simply not economically feasible to arrange more complex heating systems in a country house that is not intended for permanent residence. In this case, the most economical and effective way of heating the cottage is stove heating, which requires only the presence of firewood or coal.

Varieties of Russian stoves

Structures of this kind can be classified according to various principles:

By size (width, length):

  • large (from 1.5 m to 2.3 m or more)
  • medium (1.5 m per 1, 75 m)
  • small (less than 1.5 m per 1, 75 m) Russian stoves

According to the design scheme:

  • traditional furnaces with fuel loading only in the crucible (cooking compartment) and without an additional furnace under the shaft
  • advanced models: a furnace of the Teplushka type with smoke circulating channels between the furnace foundation and the furnace hearth; Russian stove with underfloor - an additional firebox under the overburden, blocked instead of a six-piece cooking cast-iron surface with burners.

According to the shape of the arch:

  • with barrel vault
  • with dome (semicircular)
  • with a three-center

The special shapes of the vault ensure the correct internal circulation of flue gases and uniform heating of the cooking compartment.

You can also learn about heating a country house.

Advantages and disadvantages of Russian stoves

  • Russian stove has a good efficiency. If the traditional model is heated with a damper removed from the mouth, then the mentioned indicator will be about 30-35%. However, if you close the mouth, it will rise to 50%.
  • The disadvantage of a traditional furnace is the heat generation only above the hearth in the furnace, that is, at a height of almost a meter from the floor.
  • In modern buildings, smoke circuits are placed in the lower part so that the furnace warms up to its full height. The efficiency of the improved versions of the Teplushka type reaches 68% (as in TPPs with solid fuel), and for individual designs of furnaces with lower heating it reaches 80%.
  • Inherent in the Russian stove and the disadvantages associated with its massiveness and complexity of the design. However, it should be noted that the stoves of the Dutch and Swedish designs that are not uncommon in modern dachas also occupy a lot of space.
  • Of course, the Russian stove cannot be considered an ideal device that does not have its operational shortcomings. To successfully cook food in it, the mistress of the house should have considerable skill, since not every modern woman can give inward and pull out the pots.
  • Every day the furnace needs a firebox, i.e. in freshly chopped wood.

Russian stove with smoke

Unlike traditional stoves, units with an improved design are heated throughout the entire volume to the floor. However, putting them out with your own hands is quite difficult, because certain skills will be required.

In stoves, united by the name "Teplushka", the entire space from the floor to the arch is divided into two parts:

  • top cooking compartment
  • lower heating compartment

The cooking compartment is the same as in the traditional Russian stove, it is also covered with a damper, but much more tightly. In the heating space, brick columns are made to support the hearth, as well as smoke channels with access to the chimney.

The heating and cooking compartments are connected by four holes along the edges of the hearth. There is also a fuel compartment with a grate, overlapping the ash pan, in which hot gases first enter the cooking compartment, which is separated from the annulus by a tightly shutter, where food is heated, and then through the above-mentioned openings are lowered into the heating compartment, heating the lower half of the furnace, and only after this is sent to the chimney.

In such an oven, only a small volume of hot gases is discharged from the cooking compartment into the chimney, and their main volume passes through chimneys first.

You may be interested in the article "Chimneys for summer cottages: features and benefits."

What should be a Russian stove

Hand-made masonry tips

If you intend to lay the stove with your own hands, then remember that this is a laborious and impatient fuss, comprising the following steps:

Foundation preparation

  • The bottom of the foundation pit should be lower than the freezing level, but not deeper than the foundation of the building itself. The dimensions of the pit are always wider than the dimensions of the foundation by 5-10 cm in both directions.
  • Cement mortar is poured into the pit and stone is laid out along its perimeter with periodic addition to the middle of the mortar and clogging.
  • The last layer of the foundation forms a well-burnt or burnt brick, covered with a layer of mortar and leveled.
  • After drying, lay a layer of waterproofing and begin to lay the stove with their own hands.

Masonry stages

  • Do-it-yourself masonry of a Russian stove is not the same as brickwork of the walls of buildings, so its layout should be available.
  • Starting work, it is necessary to lay out the first row of bricks dry according to the scheme and determine the position of the front wall of the furnace and the chimney.
  • Plumb lines are lowered from the ceiling, determining the passage of the chimney through the roof.
  • After checking the right angles in the first row of the masonry, the corner bricks are laid on the mortar strictly according to the level. Then lay the outer rows of bricks.
  • According to the drawing, the second row is laid. When using a one-dimensional brick, a dry layout, as in the first row, can be omitted.
  • Masonry joints should be filled with mortar to their entire depth to prevent leakage of flue gases.

Important! The solution is placed only by hand. The trowel can be used only at the bottom of the furnace when laying the firebox on the bottom of the smoke ducts.

  • Try to make the inner surface of the masonry smooth by grouting (squeezing) it every 4-5 rows.
  • The arched arch of the furnace furnace is placed using a convex formwork in the form of a box of boards with a semicircular top.

Installation of stoves

  • If a firebox door is placed, an asbestos cord is wound around its frame or a gap of 3-4 mm is made between the frame and the masonry. In the absence of a gap, the heated door, expanding, will push the masonry apart.
  • The door for the furnace should be secured with a wrap iron riveted to its frame.
  • A wire with a diameter of 2 mm is used to fasten the views, the blower and the cleaning doors, the ends of which are embedded into the masonry.

Russian stove is a multifunctional device. If you overcome the difficulties of its construction, then it will become a heating device, a stove, and a heated sleeping place at your dacha. So go ahead and succeed! This article will tell about a brick stove for a summer residence.

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