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Pomegranate varieties have different shapes, taste, color. The fruits consist of seeds with a small pit inside. They can be sweet and sour. It all depends on the type of shrub, as well as on the place of growth.
The pomegranate is a fruit tree up to 6 m high. There are varieties in the form of a bush. They are characterized by thin, even shoots of a yellow-brown hue. Foliage is rounded or oblong. The length of the leaf plate is 3-8 cm, and the width is 3 cm. The leaves are kept on short petioles, collected in bunches. The trunk is uneven, the bark is covered with small spines.
It blooms luxuriantly and for a long time, from May to August. The inflorescences are cone-shaped, bright red. Size 3 cm in diameter. Propagated by cuttings, layering and seeds. In the wild, pomegranates grow in the Caucasus, Central and Asia Minor.
Pomegranate is prized as an ornamental crop and is also used to create hedges or bonsai. The purpose of the fruit of the pomegranate tree is different. They are grown for the purpose of fresh consumption, technical processing, and obtaining juices.
How many varieties of pomegranate are there
More than 500 cultivated varieties are known. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, there are more and more of them. The main task is to create a plant that will be resistant to diseases and weather changes.
In the Nikitsky Botanical Garden, which is located in the Crimea, near the city of Yalta, there is something to see. There are 340 varieties of pomegranate there. Among them are types of domestic selection, as well as cultures of foreign origin that do not grow in temperate climates.
There are even more varieties of pomegranate in Turkmenistan, or rather in the Kara-Kala reserve. This is the largest collection in the world. In total, there are 800 species and forms of pomegranate on the territory.
What are the varieties of pomegranate
There are only two types of pomegranate in the pomegranate family - common pomegranate and Socotransky pomegranate. As a result of hybridization, many varieties and species have appeared. They have a different fruit color, composition and effect on the body.
Ordinary pomegranate variety
A long-term tree from a subtropical climate. Life expectancy is 50 years. Productivity from one tree is 60 kg. It grows to a height of 5-6 m. The branches are thin, prickly. The leaves are green, glossy. The fruit resembles an orange in size. Skin color from orange to brownish red. The growing season lasts 6-8 months. Formation and ripening of fruits occurs within 120-150 days.
Pulp and grains contain malic, citric, oxalic acid, vitamin C, sugar, and minerals. The peel contains tannins, vitamins, steroids, carbohydrates.
The wild-growing tree is widespread in the Transcaucasus, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
Sokotransky pomegranate variety
A native of Socotra Island. It is quite rare in the wild. An evergreen tree grows 2.5-4.5 m in height. The shape of the leaves is oblong, rounded. Unlike common pomegranate, it has pink inflorescences, a different structure of the ovary, smaller fruit, low sugar content. Prefers limestone soils. Occurs on rocky plateaus, 250-300 m above sea level. Not cultivated.
In accordance with the variety, pomegranate fruits are distinguished by their appearance. The color of the skin is scarlet, burgundy, sandy yellow, orange. The grains vary in color. Pomegranate varieties are characterized by the intensity of the red color or its absence. There is a pulp of white, light pink, yellow, raspberry or almost black shades. Light varieties of pomegranate have a sweeter taste than dark ones.
This fruit looks like an unripe fruit. The unusual color attracts a lot of attention. The taste is sweet, it can be said that there is no acid at all. The grains are pale pink in color. The skin is thin.
A seasoning for meat and fish dishes is prepared from yellow pomegranate. Yellow juice is suitable for making syrups, sauces, sweet drinks.
Attention! When buying a yellow pomegranate, you should carefully examine the skin. It should not have dents, dark spots, damage.
The fruit can be frozen. To do this, the pomegranate is placed in a plastic bag and put into the refrigerator for long-term storage.
Popular varieties of pomegranate
All known types and varieties of pomegranate are divided into two groups. The fruits of the first group have a hard and dense bone. They grow in a region with a warm climate. Fruit trees are undemanding to soil and external conditions. The second group is plants with soft bones. These cultures are whimsical and receptive. They grow in a certain area. They dry up if the soil, humidity, air temperature are not suitable.
Gardeners prefer medium to early ripening varieties. Early pomegranates practically do not need shelter for the winter, they quickly take root and grow. Fruiting of such trees occurs 3 years after planting, and by 7 years the yield reaches 10 kg.
The fruit is native to Israel. Fruits are medium in size. Weight 180-210 g. Under favorable conditions, the plant will stretch up to 5 m in height. The pulp has a pleasant sweet taste with a sour taste, which is more an advantage than a disadvantage. In Israel, the pomegranate tree symbolizes love. Oil is made from its seeds. The substance is actively used in the cosmetic field.
The culture that is grown in Uzbekistan and Central Asia. Tall but compact bush. The shape is flattened round. The mass of the pomegranate is 250-600 g. The skin is smooth, shiny, beige with a raspberry blush. The grains are elongated, pink in color. Calyx conical with curved teeth. Pomegranate juice turns out to be light pink in color, sweet in taste. Its sugar content is 15%, acid - 0.6%. The fruit ripens in October. The shelf life is 60 days. The yield per bush is on average 20-25 kg.
A variety of red garnets. It was obtained by scientists from Uzbekistan by selection. Fruit weight on average 450 g. Plant height 4.5 m. Lush, branched bush. The pulp is overly sweet, but due to the inherent acidity, the taste is not sugary. A distinctive feature is the peel of a dark green carmine shade. The skin is dense. In ripe fruits, it is carmine-colored inside.
The second name is "Carthaginian apple". The appearance of the variety was noted in the countries of the Mediterranean and Asia. Due to its miniature size, the variety is suitable for home cultivation. Leaves are oblong in shape, collected in groups. The sheet plate is glossy. The branches are covered with small thorns. The fruits are orange or red. More related to decorative varieties. Does not grow higher than 50 cm. The bush, planted in a pot, blooms beautifully and for a long time. However, so that it does not lose its attractiveness, the plant must be regularly pruned. With the arrival of autumn, part of the foliage falls off - this is a natural phenomenon. The pomegranate needs rest for 1-2 months. New leaves will appear in the spring.
Homeland - Carthage. The bush is no higher than 1 m in height. Due to the long and abundant flowering, the plant is used as a decoration. Suitable for indoor growing. The foliage is oblong green. Flowers are yellow or white. The fruits are small and not intended for human consumption. Ordinary pomegranate tastes better than the Carthage variety.
Important! To maintain the correct shape and aesthetics, branches should be cut.
The pomegranate was brought to the European continent from Asia Minor, Iran. The foliage is small, oblong. The height of the shrub is 1 m. It is a reduced copy of a garden bush. The flowers are oblong, sometimes with elongated petals that form the fruit. The second type of inflorescences - the petals are short, they do not have an ovary. The fruits are elongated. The Nana variety tastes sweet and sour. The bush is capable of completely shedding foliage. It all depends on the growing conditions. The plant loves warmth, needs daily watering.
One of the best Indian pomegranates. The growing area stretches from the territory of Iran and up to North India, capturing the Himalayas. The evergreen shrub is large and the fruits are small. It prefers to grow pomegranate in regions with dry, hot summers and cool winters.
Medium-sized pomegranate tree. The fruits are round in shape. Cream-colored surface with green stripes around the entire circumference. Carmine skin tone is common. The skin is thin, yellow inside. The grains are red and pink, large. The taste is sweet.
A hybrid variety obtained by breeders of Azerbaijan. Sprawling bush grows up to 3 m in height. The branches are covered with thorns. Fruits of different sizes are formed on this variety of pomegranate. The fruits are elongated and rounded. The average weight is 250 g. The maximum recorded weight of the berry is 600 g. The shelf life of ripe fruits is no more than 4 months. The crop is not imported. The pomegranate is sold in the fruit markets of Azerbaijan.
Frost-resistant pomegranate varieties
Pomegranate is a thermophilic plant that thrives in the tropics. Meanwhile, it is resistant to cold weather and can withstand short-term frosts down to -15 ° C. However, even frost-resistant varieties cannot survive the long cold winter. Temperature - 17 ° С is critical for culture. As a result of a decrease in temperature, the shoots on which the fruits are formed are primarily affected. The entire aerial part freezes up to the root collar. If the temperature drops even lower, then the roots of the plant die.
Pomegranate celebrates itself well when the temperature in winter is higher - 15 ° C. Of course, trees can live in cold regions, but they do not always bloom. Average frost resistance implies shelter of plants for the winter. The insulation process is simple, but necessary. Otherwise, the trees will die.
Ak Dona Crimean
The variety can be easily recognized by the shape of the fruit and the shade of the skin. The color of the skin is yellow-red, with visible reddish blotches. The fruit is strongly flattened at the poles, which clearly differs from other varieties. The size is large. The inner side of this variety is bright yellow. The color of the seeds is dark pink. Sourness is present in the taste. The foliage is dark green, 5-7 cm long. The neck is short and thick. The tree is short but wide. Ak Dona Crimean in the process of leaving a lot of trouble does not deliver the gardener. Grown in the steppe part of the Crimea, Central Asia. The variety is considered medium early. Harvesting takes place at the end of October.
The size of the bush is 3 m in height. The mass of one fruit is 300-400 g. The grains are covered with a thin, pink film. The taste is sweet and sour. The variety is grown in Turkmenistan, Georgia. It ripens, as a rule, in October. The fruit can be stored for 3-4 months. Used to obtain pomegranate juice. Galyusha red grows and bears fruit in temperate climates, subject to shelter for the winter.
The pink pomegranate variety appeared in Azerbaijan. The average weight of the fruit is 200-250 g. It is distinguished by a more round shape. This variety of pomegranate is used to obtain juice. The yield of the liquid product is 54%. Suitable for making sauces. The grains are pink and medium in size. Galyusha is known for its interesting taste.
The pomegranate variety was bred in the Nikitsky Botanical Garden, hence the name. A high-yielding species that requires shelter for the winter. Nikitsky early is successfully grown in the central regions of Ukraine. The bush is medium-sized. Height 2 m. It blooms profusely throughout the summer. Inflorescences are male and female. The fruits are large. The early Nikitsky variety has an external resemblance to the Ordinary pomegranate.
The sweetest varieties of pomegranate
Taste characteristics are determined by the percentage of sugar and acid. Pomegranate varieties can be roughly divided into three groups: sweet, sweet and sour and sour. The minimum sugar content in sweet fruits is 13%, in sour fruits - 8%.
The taste characteristics of the pomegranate are influenced by the climatic characteristics of the growing area, variety, and the stage of fruit ripeness. Pomegranate loves a lot of light and warmth. Sweet varieties of pomegranate are exported from Tajikistan, Azerbaijan and Central Asian countries. An ideal region for growing fruit is the vicinity of the Talysh Mountains.
For the fruit to be sweet, it must be fully ripe. The main criteria for choosing a ripe fruit:
- peel from red to maroon;
- absence of spots, dents, external defects on the surface;
- a large fruit cannot weigh less than 130 g;
- dry and slightly stiff skin;
- no smell.
The following are the three sweetest varieties of pomegranate with a photo.
The natural growing environment is the territory of India. The fruits are light pink in color. The grains are the same shade or white. Fruit weight is 180-200 g. The culture belongs to medium-sized species. The height of the bush is 2 m. A very sweet fruit.
Important! In India, a drug that has an analgesic effect is prepared from the Dholka pomegranate root. The bark is used to prepare decoctions for worms and dysentery.
Pomegranate variety of Iranian origin. In terms of the amount of sugar, it is difficult to find an equal. The shrub grows up to 4 m high. Inflorescences are red-orange in color, medium in size. The buds appear in May and the flowering period lasts throughout the summer. The surface of the fruit is pink with a distinct green tinge. The grains are pink. They can be eaten.
Important! The lighter the appearance of the pomegranate, the sweeter the fruit tastes.
Another fruit is native to Iran. It resembles the previous variety in shape, color and taste. The rind is beige with light green blotches. The inner surface is pink. Almost all grains are even, perfect in shape. The hue ranges from light pink to crimson or red. Nar-Shirin is cultivated in the central part of the country. Gardeners cultivate Ahmar and Nar-Shirin varieties mainly for the domestic market.
Pomegranate varieties, regardless of their purpose, require attention and care. Especially in cold climates. Sweet fruits are obtained in warm, southern countries. The desired result is influenced by the soil, compliance with the rules of cultivation. If desired, in the regions of Central Russia, you can grow a pomegranate tree, but in a greenhouse.