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Hawthorn is a perennial shrub with fragrant flowers and bright red fruits from the Rosaceae family. When growing in a summer cottage, every gardener should have an idea of how hawthorn can be propagated. The plant is responsive to all breeding methods, choosing the most suitable one, you can grow a beautiful shrub that will decorate your summer cottage.
How hawthorn reproduces
In order for the hawthorn to develop well in the garden, you need to know the rules of care, planting and reproduction. Hawthorn can be propagated by seeds, cuttings, by branching, grafting and by root cuttings and growths:
- Cuttings. For this propagation method, young green shoots are cut at an acute angle 10-15 cm long. The lower foliage is removed, the upper one is shortened by half. The prepared planting material is planted in soil made from sand and peat. In order for rapid root formation to occur, the cutting is processed in "Kornevin" or "Epin" and air humidity is created at least 80%. The method has disadvantages: poor rooting, low survival rate.
- Root increments. Since the plant is a bush, root branches are formed every year. In the fall or at the end of summer, the offspring is carefully disconnected from the uterine bush and transplanted to a prepared place.
- By diversion. To obtain a new plant, 1–2-year-old shoots are placed in a prepared trench so that the upper part rises to the surface of the earth. The outlet is sprinkled with earth, the soil is shed and mulched. At the end of summer, the shoot will take root and will be ready for replanting.
- Root cuttings. Planting material is stocked in the fall. For this method, lignified roots 10-15 cm long are used. In the spring, the rhizome is divided in half and planted in the ground at an acute angle, leaving 1 cm above the surface. Germination occurs only when the air humidity is at least 80%.
- Seeds. The seeds are thickly coated and the chance of germination is very low.
Before sowing, for better germination, you need to heed the advice:
- use unripe fruits;
- carry out stratification;
- treat the seeds with sodium nitrate;
- before sowing, soak for 5 days in warm water.
Important! Sowing seeds is carried out in the fall in a prepared, nutritious soil.
Propagation of hawthorn by seeds and cuttings is not an easy process that can bring negative results instead of the expected ones.
How to grow hawthorn seeds
Seed propagation of hawthorn is painstaking work and requires a lot of time and patience. A shrub grown from seeds will not inherit the beauty of the mother plant, therefore, it is not recommended to propagate valuable varieties by this method.
Growing hawthorn from seeds at home
It is difficult to propagate hawthorns at home, and this method is not suitable for young gardeners. Before planting, it is necessary to prepare the seed, container and soil. After the first shoots appear, the plant needs proper care.
Hawthorn seed stratification
To obtain friendly shoots when propagating hawthorn by seeds, the sowing material must undergo stratification. Without preliminary preparation, the seeds will not sprout.
Unripe, large, healthy fruits are selected for reproduction. Cut the shell and remove the pulp with seeds, which must be stratified. For this:
- The planting material, along with the pulp, is soaked in warm water.
- After a day, carefully removed from the water and rubbed through a sieve.
- The separated grains are soaked in 1% potassium nitrate for a day.
- The prepared material is wrapped in a canvas cloth and put into a cellar or refrigerator for the whole winter. You can use another method: the seeds are mixed with river sand, placed in a container, spilled and removed in a cool room.
Preparation of soil and containers
After preparatory work, the seeds are planted in a wide, deep pot. A 15 cm layer of drainage and nutrient soil are laid on the bottom. To prepare the soil for planting, it is necessary to mix peat, coarse sand, humus and leafy soil. Before sowing seeds, the soil is watered with boiling water or a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
How to plant hawthorn seeds
Since the germination of seeds in hawthorns is low, they are sown rather thickly and shallowly. After planting, they are sprinkled with earth, watered and a micro greenhouse is installed. After the emergence of seedlings, the shelter is removed, and the container is rearranged in a warm, sunny place.
Growing hawthorn from seeds
Care for hawthorn seedlings is simple. It consists in regular watering with warm water under the root. After irrigation, the soil is gently loosened. Fertilizing with organic fertilizers is applied twice a year. Hawthorn is a slow-growing plant, the annual growth is 15–20 cm. After the plant reaches 30 cm and grows a strong root system, it can be safely transferred to an open area.
How to plant hawthorn seeds in the open field in the fall
To plant hawthorn seeds to give a positive result, they take the prepared seed of the last year. In this case, germination can occur only after a year and a half.
Seeds are sown in a sunny place, avoiding damp and wetlands. They dig up the earth, add humus and rotted manure. Shallow furrows are made, planting material is laid to a depth of 1–1.5 cm and sprinkled with earth, abundant watering is carried out, and the bed is covered with pine needles or dry foliage.
How to grow hawthorn from cuttings
Propagating hawthorn by cuttings is a difficult and painstaking task. They take root for a long time and reluctantly, therefore, choosing the method of propagation of hawthorn by cuttings, you need to take into account that the planting material takes root for 1.5-2 years and it is not a fact that the plant will begin to grow and develop.
Is it possible to cut a hawthorn
Cuttings are cut before the foliage blooms. If rooting takes place under a film cover, shoots can be cut in late autumn, after leaf fall.
Propagation of hawthorn by cuttings in autumn
For cuttings, one-year, green shoots are selected, no more than 1 cm thick. Side shoots growing on the south side are ideal for this. The selected shoot is divided into cuttings 10-15 cm.
Advice! It is better not to take the apical part, since its survival rate is very low.
Freshly cut planting material is kept for about an hour in a root formation stimulator and planted in a large pots with nutritious soil. The land can be purchased at the store, or you can cook it yourself. For this, river sand, peat and chalk are mixed in equal parts.
The soil is watered with a rooting plant in which the cuttings were located, and the cut shoots are placed. To create the temperature-humid regime necessary for germination, the pot is covered with a plastic or glass bottle.
The appearance of the first leaves is a sign of rooting. After that, the shelter is removed for 10-15 minutes, daily increasing the time spent in the open air. Seedling care consists in watering and feeding. During the growing season, young seedlings are fed with nitrogenous fertilizers. Watering is carried out plentiful, but infrequently after the topsoil has completely dried out.
The next year, a mature, rooted bush can be planted in the chosen place.
Propagation of hawthorn by cuttings in spring
In the spring, the planting material is cut before sap flow. The technology for cutting and preparing for planting is the same as when planting cuttings in the fall at home.
The planting material is planted in a checkerboard pattern, maintaining an interval between rows of half a meter, and between plants - 20 cm. For rooting, an air humidity of at least 80% is needed.
To maintain the temperature and humidity conditions, special fogging installations are made. For this:
- A ditch half a meter deep is dug out, ½ filled with compost or humus, a layer of sand is poured on top and planting material is planted.
- Trenches are tamped tightly on 2 sides, glass is installed on top in a wooden frame (you can use old window glass).
- To make the frame fit tightly, boards are laid along the perimeter of the pit.
- The inner side of the glass is sheathed with a light, highly absorbent fabric.
- On a sunny day, when the moisture absorbed into the fabric evaporates, fog will be created, due to which the temperature and humidity regime is maintained.
If, after breeding hawthorn, the cuttings wintered well, this is the key to success. In the spring, during the growing season, the young plant is intensively fed with nitrogenous fertilizers after abundant watering.
The next year, the propagated plants are planted in a permanent place with an interval of at least 2 m. But for better growth and development, experienced gardeners advise to transplant for 4 years after rooting.
Gardeners began to practice rooting hawthorn in potatoes:
- Sliced shoots are prepared.
- All eyes are removed from potatoes.
- After that, the cuttings are inserted into the root crop and buried in the ground.
- The land is watered and mulched. Cover with a glass or plastic jar on top.
Vaccination is the best way to breed hawthorns. Mountain ash and an old, poorly fruiting hawthorn bush can be used as a stock.
Which method to choose
There are 3 methods on how to plant a hawthorn:
- into cleavage;
- in the butt;
In the split - the top of the branch (stock) is cut off at the desired height, after which a vertical incision is made on the hemp with a depth of 5 cm, where the cutting (scion) is inserted. Prepared breeding material should be healthy and have 3-4 buds. The lower cut of the scion is made in a conical shape so that it is easier to place it in the gap made.
In the butt - the method of execution is the same as when grafting into a split, but there is one difference: the scion is inserted into a pocket cut out on the side wall of the stock.
Copulation is a popular and effective method. For this method, the rootstock and scion diameters must be the same. On the scion and rootstock, oblique cuts are made at an angle of 30 degrees, for a tight connection of tissues.
Copulation is the easiest method, even a novice gardener can handle it. Pros of copulation:
- simplicity in execution;
- 100% survival rate;
- you can plant various fruit trees and shrubs;
- after 12 months, the first fruits can be harvested.
Important! For successful fusion, it is necessary to select branches of the same diameter.
What can hawthorn be grafted on?
Hawthorn can be grafted onto red rowan and old, non-fertile hawthorn shrub. The best stock for hawthorn is red mountain ash. Reproduction in this way makes it possible to obtain a standard tree, on which, as practice shows, the taste and medicinal qualities of the fruits do not change.
When grafted onto an old bush, the bush is rejuvenated and fruiting resumes.
Grafting hawthorn on an apple tree
Closely related plants can be grafted onto the apple tree. That is, an apple tree with an apple tree or an apple tree with a pear can be propagated by grafting.
The main condition for any vaccination: only stone fruits take root on stone fruits, and pome fruits on pome fruits.
When multiplying interspecific trees, the plant will be short-lived, with a small and poor-quality crop.
Is it possible to plant a hawthorn on a pear seedling
You cannot graft a hawthorn on a pear; you can graft certain varieties of a pear on a hawthorn. Engaging in experimental grafting, it must be remembered that when multiplying in this way, fruiting occurs in 2-3 years. Therefore, inoculating specimens of different breeds, you can waste a lot of time and not wait for the expected result.
Vaccination terms and rules
The hawthorn can be propagated by grafting after the snow melts, before bud break, or immediately after leaf fall. For the scion, take 2 summer plants with a root collar diameter of 1 cm. The grafting is carried out at a height of 1 m, while the side shoots are not removed.
The key to good survival depends on the cuttings. They should be:
- cut from the south side of the tree;
- harvested in the fall and overwintered in the cellar or in the refrigerator;
- they should have from 4 to 7 well-developed buds.
Advice! Since the hawthorn has a very dense bark, inoculation is carried out with a sharp instrument.
Whichever method of vaccination is chosen, the technique is the same for everyone:
- The vaccination site is tied with polyethylene or insulating tape.
- Open places are treated with garden pitch.
- The joints must be protected from moisture penetration, but not overtightened.
- A month after the appearance of the kidneys, the bandage is loosened.
- Until the moment of complete accretion, the hawthorn needs care and attention: protection from direct sunlight, removal of excess branches, prevention of insect pests.
The success of the work will be seen in 30-40 days. If the reproduction was carried out according to the rules, and the scion quickly took root, the hawthorn will begin to bear fruit the next year.
What can be grafted on hawthorn
Hawthorn is an excellent rootstock for pears. The seedlings grafted on it develop well and bear fruit. In order for a fruit tree to start bearing fruit, it is necessary to choose the right varieties. On hawthorn, such varieties as: Talgarskaya beauty, Zolotovorotskaya, Prikarpatskaya, Bere Kievskaya, Hoverla reproduce well. They give good growth, begin to form flower buds and bear fruit immediately.
Some varieties, according to gardeners, do not take root on hawthorn. These include: Sonatina, seedless Drycha, 56-25 Vyzhnitsa.
How to breed hawthorn with root suckers
This breeding method is used for bush forms of hawthorn. The method is used in late August and early September.
The emerging annual shoots are carefully separated, but not dug out, from the mother plant, taking care not to damage the horizontal root. After an independent young plant overwinters, takes root and begins to turn green, it can be dug up and transplanted to a new place.
Propagation of hawthorn by layering
Only bush forms of hawthorn can be propagated by layering. The technology of the work is very simple:
- After the end of spring frosts, annual shoots are carefully placed in a prepared trench.
- Fastened to the soil with a wooden spear or staple so that the top is located above the soil surface.
- The trench is covered with earth, watered abundantly, the soil is mulched.
- The separation of the branch from the mother plant is carried out in the fall or spring.
How can you propagate large-fruited hawthorn
On sale you can find a large assortment of large-fruited hawthorn seedlings, but many varieties are expensive and not everyone can afford. Therefore, in order to grow a beautiful and useful hedge on a personal plot, you need to know how the large-fruited garden hawthorn reproduces.
Large-fruited hawthorn reproduces by seeds and vegetatively. When propagated by seeds, the first shoots may appear several years after planting. A plant that has grown from seeds loses its maternal resemblance, and fruiting occurs at 7–8 years.
Hawthorn reproduces well vegetatively. The pruned old plant begins to intensively grow root shoots, which are dug up and transplanted to a new place.
And also a good result is given by grafting a young cutting onto an old, non-fertile plant.
Hawthorn can be propagated in different ways. Each of them has its own pros and cons.Choosing the most suitable one, you can diversify the garden with a beautiful and useful shrub, which will be decorated with white, fragrant flowers in spring, and will delight you with bright red juicy and medicinal fruits in autumn.