We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
German medlar is a thermophilic fruit tree adapted to the climatic conditions of Turkey, Iran, Iraq and the Caucasus. Several varieties have been bred in culture, including those with high winter hardiness (up to -30 degrees). These varieties can be cultivated even in the climatic conditions of the Moscow region and other regions of the middle zone.
Description of the German medlar with a photo
German medlar (Mespilus germanica) is a fruit tree belonging to the Pink family. Several plant names are common:
- winter pear (fruits ripen in the second half of autumn);
- abratse (in Abkhazia);
- cones (in the North Caucasus);
- zykir (in Armenia);
- ezgil (in Azerbaijan).
It is a deciduous tree of medium height. In a warm climate (frost-free winter) the German medlar reaches 7–8 m, but in the temperate zone it grows up to 3–4 m. The crown is spreading, the trunk is straight, up to 20 cm in diameter. small thorns. The plant does not differ in species diversity. There are only 2 varieties of German medlar: large-fruited and polyspermous.
The leaves of the medlar are of a Germanic oval shape, the color is light green. Quite large in size: up to 15 cm in length, up to 4 cm in width. The surface is smooth, but a slight pubescence is noticeable on the underside. By autumn, the leaves acquire a bright red color, then fall off.
The flowers of the German medlar are white and pale pink, up to 3 cm in diameter. In appearance they resemble quince inflorescences. Appear from May to June.
Fruits form from mid-October to late November
They are small in size (3 cm in diameter), red-brown in color, and have expanded sepals.
Despite its name, Germanic medlar grows naturally in northern Iran, Iraq, Turkey. Also, the culture is widespread in the Caucasus, Bulgaria and Greece. In Russia, it is found only in the southern regions - from the Crimea and Krasnodar Territory to the North Caucasus. Subject to careful care and shelter for the winter, cultivation in the Moscow region and other regions of the middle lane is possible. Cultivation in other areas is problematic due to the thermophilicity of the German medlar.
Useful properties of German medlar
The chemical composition of the fruit contains many minerals and other beneficial compounds:
- organic acids;
- vitamins A, C, group B (B1, IN2, IN3, IN6, IN9);
- iron, iodine, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, sodium, selenium;
The fruits of the German medlar are prescribed for the treatment and prevention of certain diseases. Regular use has a positive effect on the human body:
- improves the functioning of the digestive system;
- reduces pain in kidney stones;
- strengthens the immune system;
- normalizes blood pressure;
- increases blood clotting;
- restores tissue;
- prevents the appearance of blood clots;
- prevents premature aging;
- strengthens nails, hair and bones;
- reduces the risk of developing cancer, strokes and heart attacks.
How to use German medlar
The fruits of the German medlar have a firm consistency and sour taste due to their high acid content. Therefore, they are not consumed immediately after collection. Pre-freeze the fruit in a convenient way:
- leave to winter on the branches and pluck in early spring;
- collect before frost and send to the freezer for several days;
- place for long-term storage in a refrigerator chamber or in a cellar.
Due to the cold treatment, the fruits of the German medlar soften and become noticeably sweet. At the same time, they dry out a little - they become covered with wrinkles and lose volume. The ready-to-eat fruit tastes like baked apples.
Medlar Germanic banned for allergy sufferers, diabetics and people with digestive problems
The crop can be used fresh, but it is more often used for preparing food and drinks:
- mousse cake;
- wine and liquor;
- sauce for meat dishes;
- sweet salad with other fruits;
Contraindications and harm of the German medlar
German medlar is safe for consumption. But in some cases, it gives allergic reactions, provokes diarrhea, heartburn and other unpleasant phenomena. The fruits should not be consumed:
- allergy sufferers;
- persons with gastritis, ulcers, pancreatitis;
- patients with diabetes;
- children under three years old inclusive.
Attention! Unripe German medlar (before cold treatment) can provoke constipation. The fruits are astringent.
How to grow a German medlar
It is possible to grow German medlar both in the southern regions and in central Russia. The plant is not very whimsical, but needs some care (watering, feeding, protection for the winter), especially in the first years of life.
Planting german medlar
The planting of German medlar seeds is planned for early March. Growing instructions are as follows:
- Several seeds are selected and placed overnight in a growth stimulant solution (Kornevin, Epin).
- A soil mixture is prepared in advance from sod land, humus, black peat and sand in equal quantities.
- It is treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Can be sent to the freezer for several days.
- The planting containers are also washed with potassium permanganate. The soil is laid in them.
- Seeds are planted to a depth of 1 cm with a distance of 5–7 cm from each other.
- Moisten with settled water (you can from a spray).
- They are placed on a windowsill, covered with a foil with holes and grown under room conditions, periodically airing and watering.
- After 1.5 months (i.e. closer to May), seedlings will appear.
- After the appearance of two pairs of leaves, the seedlings of the German medlar dive.
They are transplanted into open ground in early autumn or late spring, leaving them to winter at home. The planting site must be completely open and dry (not in the lowlands). Planting in partial shade is allowed: the plant does not like direct sunlight during the hot period. The optimal soil type is fertile, light loam. 1–2 months before planting, compost or humus is introduced into the ground (one bucket for 1–2 m2), and if the soil is clay, add 1 kg of sawdust or sand to the same area.
The holes for planting the German medlar are dug at a distance of 4–5 m, their depth should be small (the root collar is flush with the surface)
Plants are immediately watered, and pegs and stems are tied up.
How to care
When growing German medlar, it is recommended to follow these rules:
- The plant needs regular watering, so water should be given weekly, and twice as often in drought. It is advisable to defend it for 10-12 hours. Water for irrigation should not be cold.
- Fertilizers are applied starting from the second season. In April, give urea (20 g per tree) or ammonium nitrate (15 g per well). In the summer, organic matter is added 3-4 times. Use mullein, infusion of green grass or citrus dressing, diluted 2 times.
- The soil is periodically loosened, weeds are regularly removed.
- For the winter, the trunk circle is mulched with fallen leaves, needles, sawdust, straw, peat. It is advisable to close young seedlings with agrofibre.
Every autumn the German medlar must be cut and prepared for winter.
Features of growing German medlar in the Moscow region
Cultivated varieties are characterized by increased winter hardiness: they can withstand frosts down to -30 ° C, which makes it possible to grow a tree in the climatic conditions of the Moscow region. But it is worth considering a few features:
- When growing seedlings, it is kept at home for at least one year, i.e. until next spring.
- Transplanting into the ground is carried out only at the end of May, when there is no threat of recurrent frosts.
- It is preferable to grow cuttings of the German medlar in greenhouses or under jars, and for the winter, transplant them into a pot and transfer them to a cool room.
- Every spring and autumn, pruning is carried out: old, diseased branches are removed, skeletal shoots are shortened by half, and in the next two years - by a quarter. The crown is periodically thinned out.
- For the winter, young seedlings are carefully mulched, you can also wrap it up with dense agrofibre or other material.
German medlar can be propagated in several ways:
The seeds have good germination, so this method is considered the most reliable. They are planted in March and grown in seedlings for at least six months (until autumn) or a year (before replanting next spring).
The seeds of the plant are often used for breeding crops.
By cuttings, you can propagate adult trees of the German medlar. For this, healthy shoots are cut off in May and cuttings 15–20 cm long are obtained from them. The leaves are cut in half. They are planted in moist, fertile soil to a depth of 5 cm (strictly vertically). They cover it with a bottle, transfer it to a cool room for the winter, and return it to the open ground the next year.
It is even easier to dilute the German medlar with layering. To do this, in September, you need to bend several lower branches, lay them in the grooves dug out in advance and pin them with staples. Previously, several cuts are made on the branches. The grooves are covered with soil and watered with Kornevin. Layers are grown for two years, after which all rooted parts are cut off and transplanted to a permanent place. It is better to do this also in the fall.
They plant the German medlar on hawthorn, quince, plum, apple or pear. For this, two methods are used - in the cleavage and behind the bark. German medlar and itself is sometimes used as a rootstock. Pears are grafted onto it.
Attention! Regardless of the chosen method of reproduction, the culture will give its first fruits only 4–5 years after planting.
Protection against diseases and pests
German medlar is distinguished by good immunity to common diseases and pests. But sometimes it is affected by some types of rot, which is especially often observed against the background of excessive moisture. Therefore, watering must be adjusted, paying attention to the weather forecast and possible precipitation.
For prophylaxis in spring and autumn, it is recommended to treat the German medlar with any fungicide:
- Bordeaux liquid;
Insects can be fought with folk remedies: infusion of tobacco dust, wood ash with soap, onion husks, decoction of potato tops. In case of an invasion of pests, insecticides will be more effective:
Important! If the shoots of the German medlar are stretched and weakened, the plant has little light. It is necessary to remove adjacent shrubs or transplant the crop to a more open area.
Germanic medlar varieties for cultivation in the country
Several common varieties are suitable for cultivation in a summer cottage:
All these varieties are large-fruited: fruits reach 5 cm in diameter. Among seedless varieties, Apirena and Gromadnaya Evreinova are popular. The latter is distinguished by very large fruits, the diameter of which reaches 7-8 cm.
There are other interesting varieties of German medlar, for example, Dutch, which is a large shrub with straight trunks. Summer residents grow Royal as well as Nottingham. These varieties bear small fruits, but they have an excellent taste and a pronounced fruity aroma.
Collection and storage
In autumn, the fruits turn red with a brownish tint. They can be left to winter on the branches or removed immediately and sent to the cellar, refrigerator for long-term storage (temperature 2-6 degrees Celsius, humidity not more than 70%). If you want to use it right away, put it in the freezer for a few days. The fruits can only be eaten after they have been frozen.
The fruits of the German medlar ripen from mid-October to the end of November.
German medlar is an ornamental plant with delicious fruits. The crop is used in folk medicine. Caring for the German medlar is simple. The main condition is the correct choice of a variety that matches the climatic characteristics of a particular region.