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Apricot Khabarovsk has come a long way in selection tests. On the territory of the former USSR, in many republics, regions and districts, at experimental stations and in the gardens of volunteers, test samples were planted, which agronomists observed for a long time. Experts recorded and analyzed all varietal qualities of apricot, and in many respects it showed its best side.
Back in 1949, breeder Kazmin G. T. bred a new apricot variety Khabarovsky by pollination of the Best Michurinsky and European Krasnoshchek. It was included in the State Register of approved crops in 1979. The Far Eastern Institute of Agriculture acted as the originator.
Description of culture
Apricot Khabarovsky is a rather tall tree, by the age of ten it reaches a height of 4.5-5.0 meters, the crown circumference is 5 meters or more. The crown itself is spreading, not thickened, on dark purple thick and straight branches there are whitish oblong stripes. Annual growths are strong and straight, their length can reach 1 meter (on young 3-4-year-old trees). Fruits are formed on fruit twigs on wood 2-3 years old.
Apricot fruits are medium, their weight is no more than 25-30 g, conical in shape, slightly compressed on the sides, the seam in the middle of the fruit is deep and wide. The skin is covered with dense fibers, the color is pale yellow with characteristic red-orange spots on the sides. The tip of the fruit is pointed. Its orange pulp has a good taste and medium juiciness, a small stone separates well, and it tastes sweet.
The Khabarovsk apricot variety is recommended to be grown in the regions of the Far East, Primorsky and Khabarovsk territories (in their southern regions). Ripening dates for apricots are early and it manages to ripen even in areas with unfavorable climatic conditions. Good winter hardiness allows you to grow the Khabarovsk apricot in the Moscow region, in the Volga region and in the Urals.
A detailed description of the Khabarovsk apricot variety will help novice gardeners, and not only them, to form their opinion about the culture, to decide whether it is worth growing it in their gardens or farms.
Drought resistance, winter hardiness
The main criteria for growing a crop is the behavior of the plant in drought or severe frosts. Khabarovsk apricot was bred in the Far East, where the climate is cold, in winter there are often severe frosts. These factors were taken into account by breeders in the first place, therefore this culture has increased winter hardiness, its buds do not freeze at temperatures down to -30 ° C.
Seedlings and young apricot trees 2-3 years old should be watered at least 4-5 times a month. In the future, when the plant takes root and grows the root system, it will not need frequent watering. It will be enough to water the tree no more than 1-2 times a month, increasing the number of waterings in case of persistent drought to 2-3 times a month.
Pollination, flowering period and ripening times
Apricot Khabarovsk is a relatively self-fertile culture. The tree is capable of forming only up to 20% of all fruit ovaries. You can increase the yield with the help of pollinator plants, the main condition in this case is their simultaneous flowering with the Khabarovsk variety. Such plants can be apricots: Snezhinsky, Amur, Akademik.
The tree begins to bloom early (mid-May or early June), so the variety is sometimes mistakenly referred to as thermophilic crops. During the research, when growing the Khabarovsk apricot in colder regions, no negative phenomena were noted: during the spring cold snap, the flowers did not crumble, the ovaries remained intact. In the second half of July, after the 20th, the first apricot fruits ripen.
The annual fruiting of the plant begins at the 4th or 5th year of the tree's life. Fruit branches grow on wood 2-3 years old, rather large buds are formed on them, flowers are also large (3-5 cm in diameter) white.
Partial self-fertility of the Khabarovsk apricot allows you to get an insignificant harvest, but if there are pollinating trees nearby (at a distance of 3-6 meters), the yield increases significantly. From one plant per season, you can get up to 36 kg of fruit, a record figure was noted at 40 kg.
Scope of the fruit
Fresh ruddy fruits of the Khabarovsk apricot are begging to be put in your mouth, no one will refuse to taste them fresh. Fruits are also good in various winter preparations: compotes, preserves, marmalades and jam. Farms everywhere make preparations from dried apricots (dried apricots) for sale to the population at any time of the year. Such fruits do not lose their useful qualities and can be stored for a long time.
Attention! Winter preparations from apricots are no less useful and tasty than fresh fruits.
Disease and pest resistance
According to the information declared by the originator of the Khabarovsk variety, its resistance to diseases is moderate. We will talk about the diseases and pests that threaten the apricot a little later.
Advantages and disadvantages
When growing Khabarovsk apricot, many advantages were revealed, but there are also disadvantages:
- beautiful and tasty fruits, wonderful presentation;
- consistently high annual harvest;
- the kernel of the stone is sweet;
- propagates well by seeds.
- decrease in winter hardiness when planting in lowlands;
- the level of transportability is below average.
For experienced gardeners, planting and caring for Khabarovsk apricot will not create problems, these procedures are largely identical for many fruit trees. Our recommendations will be useful for novice gardeners and people who have decided to plant apricots in their garden for the first time.
Khabarovsk apricot seedlings are planted in the spring while the buds of the tree are still asleep. In southern regions with warm climates, you can plant them in spring and autumn.
Choosing the right place
Apricots grow well in elevated areas well-lit by the sun, but not blown by cold through winds, especially in winter.
The soil for planting the Khabarovsk apricot should be neutral or slightly alkaline in terms of acidity, loose in structure, the optimal composition is light loam.
What crops can and cannot be planted next to an apricot
Tall perennial crops such as Khabarovsk apricot do not like close proximity to raspberry or currant bushes. It is not advisable to plant it in areas where it used to grow: peach, plum or cherry.
Closer than 5 meters, that is, early blooming daffodils or tulips can be planted in the trunk circle.
Selection and preparation of planting material
Tree seedlings can be purchased in special nurseries, ordered via the Internet, but in no case should you buy from individual sellers if you are not sure of their reliability. A good seedling is a one or two year old plant with a well-developed fibrous root system. Its height should not exceed: for a one-year-old - 70 cm, for a two-year-old - 90 cm.
The order of planting an apricot is as follows:
- a hole 70x70x70 cm is dug in the selected area;
- a peg up to 1.5 m high is placed in the center, the bottom is covered with drainage material: broken brick, expanded clay or crushed stone by 5-10 cm;
- the pit is half covered with organic matter, mineral fertilizers are added;
- an apricot seedling is placed in a hole, covered with fertile soil to the level of the root collar, which should not sink into the soil;
- tamp the earth, water and tie the seedling to a peg.
For a more detailed description of the planting process, see the attached video.
Follow-up care of the culture
Immediately after planting the seedling, pruning is performed. The upper part is cut off to 1/3 of the entire height; in biennial plants, twigs are also cut off, leaving 2 healthy buds on them.
Watering the seedling is done once a week until it takes root, then gradually reduce the number of watering to 2-3 times a month. An adult tree is watered only when there is a lack of natural rain moisture.
Khabarovsk apricot feeding begins at the age of 2-3 years once a year, and when the tree enters the fruiting period - three times: in spring, in mid-summer and in autumn.
Diseases and pests
Name of the disease
Methods of control and prevention
Clasterosporium disease (popular name - perforated spot).
Red and burgundy specks form on the leaves, which grow rapidly. The inner part of the stain, eaten away by the fungus, falls out, forming holes. Leaves dry up and fall.
Reusable (4-5 times) fungicide treatment is required.
Moniliosis (monilial burn)
Infection occurs during the flowering period. The fungus gets from the body of the insect into the flower, then into the shoots and leaves. The affected areas on the plant turn black, creating the appearance of a burn.
Affected shoots should be cut off immediately, the places should be sprayed with fungicides.
The fungus infects the bark, getting into it through untreated cracks, the bark becomes loose and rotten, and a strong flow of gum occurs.
The damaged apricot bark is cleaned to healthy wood, disinfected with a solution of copper sulfate, treated with fungicides, and closed the wound with garden varnish.
The omnivorous beetle devours buds, flowers, early shoots and leaves.
Apricots are sprayed with chemicals: Fufanon, Decis or Nitrafen.
The larvae (beetles) of various beetles eat up young root suckers.
It is recommended to treat the soil in the near-trunk circles with Diazonin solution.
Insects live in large colonies on the back of the leaves, and green shoots also eat them.
The plant is treated with insecticides several times until the aphids disappear completely.
Apricot Khabarovsk has earned the love and respect of gardeners who have been growing it in their gardens for many years. The yield and taste of the Khabarovsk fruits satisfy many farmers who sell it, from which they receive good income. We also recommend that you plant a few seedlings in order to taste the fruits grown by your own labor.
In this section, you can read the gardeners' reviews about the Khabarovsk apricot:
Varvara Ivanovna Solomina, 46 years old, Smolensk
Three varieties of apricots grow in my garden: Khabarovsk, Amur and Akademik. All varieties are inter-pollinated, so the harvest is decent every year, we do a lot of harvesting, but mostly the harvest is sold. The money is small, but what to do with so much fruit.
Nikolay Petrovich Ilyin, 39 years old, Volgograd
Before planting apricots, I read a lot about the secrets of growing them. Five years ago I planted three varieties at once: Snezhinsky, Khabarovsky and Amur. I really liked the Khabarovsky variety, from three trees it was the first to bring a crop, and what kind of harvest. One problem exists, the tree has grown a lot, and it has become difficult to harvest.
Olga Nikolaevna Lvova, 33 years old, Syzran
My Khabarovsk apricot froze 2 years after planting, and the sellers also said that the winter-hardy variety was probably weak. Now I know that seedlings must be chosen carefully, even the stock must be cold-resistant, not just the variety.