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Shrub chrysanthemums: photo, description, planting and care

Shrub chrysanthemums: photo, description, planting and care


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Bush chrysanthemum is a favorite "tool" for many landscape designers. These perennial flowers have a huge variety of species, different in size, color, flowering time, so they can be used in many flower arrangements. In addition, these plants are quite unpretentious, therefore they are grown in various regions.

What do bush chrysanthemums look like?

Shrub chrysanthemums are perennial herbaceous plants of the Asteraceae family. Numerous erect shoots form a rounded bush 0.3-1.5 m high. The root of the plant is well developed, fibrous. Stem leaves, on short petioles in the lower part, strongly dissected. Their size depends on the type and variety of the plant. The leaf plate is green, on the reverse side of a grayish tint, slightly pubescent or naked.

Shrub chrysanthemums are versatile in their use in the garden

Bisexual bisexual chrysanthemum flowers, tubular and ligulate, numerous, collected in inflorescences-baskets, located at the ends of the shoots. The structure and size of the inflorescences depends on the variety. Blossoming of bush chrysanthemums begins in July and ends only with the first frost. The color and color of the petals is very different, from white to purple.

Important! There are about 650 species of bush chrysanthemums.

When planting bush chrysanthemums

Seedlings of bush chrysanthemums grown from seeds or bought in a store are planted in open ground quite late, at the end of May or in the first half of June. Such a late date is explained by the fact that young plants are very vulnerable to recurrent frosts.

Important! A cloudy day is chosen for planting.

Varieties of spray chrysanthemums

All bush chrysanthemums are usually combined into several large groups in accordance with their characteristics and appearance:

  • simple and semi-double;

    These are varieties with an open middle of a flat inflorescence, which outwardly resemble chamomile.

  • anemone;

    The inflorescences of these varieties also have an open middle, but it has a more convex shape.

  • feathery;

    The varieties of this group have double inflorescences, while the flower petals completely cover the middle of the flower.

  • bristly;

    Visually resemble a round brush, the inflorescences resemble a feathery group, however, the petals are less densely located

  • pompom;

    The inflorescences of this group of bush chrysanthemums are spherical, regular in shape

  • spoon-shaped;

    This group gets its name from the characteristic shape of the petals, which expand in the form of a spoon towards the end.

  • fantasy, a young group of spray chrysanthemums that came from Japan;

    By the type of inflorescences of this group, they coincide with pinnate, but have much longer petals.

Below are some of the most popular perennial bush chrysanthemums most commonly used in ornamental gardening and landscaping.

Alice

A low variety of bush chrysanthemums, grows up to 0.35-0.4 m. The bush is round, dense, densely leafy shoots. Alice belongs to the group of semi-double Korean chrysanthemums. Flowers about 3 cm in diameter, bright yellow. Flowering begins in late July or early August and lasts until September.

Alice looks great as a separate bush

Important! The bush chrysanthemum of the Alice variety is often called the "golden flower".

Bacardi

This is one of the late flowering varieties. Its distinctive feature is the green or light green middle of the flower, while the petals can be white, pink, yellow. The inflorescences themselves are quite large, their diameter can be up to 10 cm. The bush chrysanthemum Bacardi blooms at the end of summer and pleases the eye all September. The bush is of medium density, up to 0.5 m in height. Shoots are tough, dense.

Bacardi is widely used for various bouquets.

Important! Chrysanthemum Bacardi is excellent in cutting, it is widely used in the preparation of bouquets.

Baltika

This variety is especially popular with flower growers, since flowers can be used both to decorate the backyard and for flower bouquets. Shoots 65-85 cm long, form a round bush of medium density. On each of them, up to 3 terry inflorescences of various colors with a diameter of 12 to 20 cm can ripen. Bush chrysanthemum Baltika blooms all autumn until frost.

There are several varieties of Baltika chrysanthemums, differing in color and size of inflorescences.

  1. Baltic Pink - pink.
  2. Baltic White are white.
  3. Baltic Lilak - purple.
  4. Baltic Lime - light green with a greenish lemon edging.
  5. Baltic Yellow - yellow.
  6. Baltika Purple - purple.
  7. Baltic VIP - white with purple or red veins.

The bush varieties of Baltika stand well in the cut, retaining their decorative effect for several weeks. They are very often grown as potted plants.

Important! Shrub chrysanthemums of the Baltika variety can also be grown as single-headed plants.

Lolipop

The length of the shoots of this variety of bush chrysanthemums reaches 0.7 m. Inflorescences are pompom-type, rather large, 6-7 cm in diameter. The color of the petals is lilac-purple. The bush chrysanthemum Lolipop blooms in September-October. The flowers have a pleasant herbaceous aroma, stand well in cut, retaining an attractive appearance for up to 3 weeks.

Important! Bush chrysanthemums Lolipop can be grown as potted plants, taking them indoors for the winter, and exposing them outdoors in the spring.

Mona lisa

A popular variety of bush chrysanthemums, widespread among gardeners. The shoots are long and strong, the height of the bush can reach 1.5-1.7 m. This is one of the largest varieties with simple inflorescences.

It has several varieties:

  1. White. Inflorescences with white petals, the central part is green.

    Flowering begins in September and ends only with the arrival of frost

  2. Pink (Pink). The petals of a pale pink color contrast well with the yellow-green center of the flower.

    Pink inflorescences can be up to 8 cm in diameter

  3. Creamy. The petals are cream-colored, the central part is greenish-yellow.

    A creamy look blooms all autumn with beautiful inflorescences up to 7 cm in diameter

Reagan

The height of the bush of these chrysanthemums can reach 0.7-0.9 m. Inflorescences with spoon-shaped petals are up to 10 cm in diameter. Flowering begins in August and ends in late September. The inflorescences consist of yellow, red or orange petals, the central part is yellowish-green.

Reagan features spoon-shaped petals

Important! Reagan chrysanthemums do well in the cut.

Saba

Chrysanthemum Saba can grow up to 70 cm, forms a beautiful bush with very original inflorescences with a bright green central part and two-colored fringed petals around it. The stem of the plant is strong, the foliage is medium.

Flowering begins in September and lasts until mid-October. There are several colors of the bush chrysanthemum Saba: lilac-white, yellow-orange and many others.

Saba have an unusual two-tone color of petals

Important! Saba is grown mainly as potted plants due to its poor winter hardiness.

Minx

This variety of Korean bush chrysanthemums has a pinnate-type inflorescence. The color of the petals is dark red, burgundy or purple. The diameter of the inflorescence ranges from 5 to 10 cm. The flowering period is September. The bush is not very tall, the length of the shoots is 0.5-0.7 m.

Minx - a representative of Korean bush flowers with a feathery inflorescence

Shrub chrysanthemums in landscape design

The rather late flowering period of spray chrysanthemums allows them to be used to decorate personal plots and garden areas in autumn, when many ornamental plants have already faded. Traditionally, landscape designers use low varieties as border plants, planting them as part of mixborders along the walls of buildings, paths and alleys, as well as as a colored background.

Colorful bush chrysanthemum border looks great

Larger bushes are used as color and architectural accents in group or individual plantings.

Planting and caring for spray chrysanthemums

Some of the species of these plants are tolerant of the Russian climate and feel good outdoors. However, certain varieties of bush chrysanthemums, especially large-flowered ones, for example, in the Moscow region are best grown as potted chrysanthemums, putting them indoors for wintering and putting them back into the garden in spring. In general, caring for them is quite traditional and not particularly difficult.

Where to plant spray chrysanthemums

These flowers love good, but diffused lighting. In the shade, they grow worse, stretch strongly and may not even bloom. These flowers do not like open spaces where they can suffer from the wind; the best place for them is closed areas or areas near fences, walls of buildings, structures. The soil is required to be breathable, loose, and rich in humus. Clay areas and places where water stagnates are not suitable for chrysanthemums.

Important! The soil for bush chrysanthemums should have a slightly acidic reaction.

Landing rules

Plants are planted with seedlings obtained from seeds or grown in a vegetative way. The earth must be dug up in advance by adding humus, as well as urea and superphosphate. You can plant seedlings on any cloudy day, from May to mid-June, after the danger of recurrent frosts becomes minimal and the soil warms up enough.

For planting chrysanthemums, it is convenient to use a small metal spatula

For planting seedlings in open ground, it is better to use a small iron spatula. Be sure to stock up on tagged pebbles for laying drainage - stagnant water in the roots can lead to the death of plants. Using a spatula, you need to dig out the planting holes, pour a layer of pebbles into them. Then the seedlings are planted, while it is not buried. Immediately after planting, the plants are pinched to increase root survival. The distance between neighboring seedlings is chosen based on their variety and size of future chrysanthemum bushes. If their size does not exceed 0.5 m, then the interval between adjacent plants should be 0.2-0.3 m, the gap between large bushes should be at least 0.5 m.

Important! Seedlings will take root faster if you sprinkle the leaves with Epin.

If, for some reason, the spring planting failed, then the procedure can be repeated in the fall, at the end of September or at the beginning of October. Most often, this need arises when planting a bush by dividing, when each part of it actually becomes an independent plant. Be sure to wait until the end of flowering, otherwise the chances of the success of this procedure will dramatically decrease. After planting in the fall, bush chrysanthemums need special care, they need to be mulched with peat, and before frost it must be covered with non-woven material.

Watering and feeding

Shrub chrysanthemums equally dislike both excessive watering and lack of moisture. In the first case, the roots of the plants rot, and in the second, the inflorescences become smaller, the shoots become thin and tough. Bush chrysanthemums are watered sparingly, at the root, with settled water or rainwater. Better to do it in the evening. In hot weather, after sunset, you can periodically sprinkle plantings. This will remove dust from the leaves and return them to a bright green color.

Specialized fertilizers for chrysanthemums replace traditional mineral fertilizers

In spring, bush chrysanthemums are usually fed with urea, adding it in the form of an aqueous solution. During the season, you can use a slurry solution for feeding 2-3 times. Starting in the middle of summer, the application of nitrogen-containing fertilizers is stopped. At the end of summer or in autumn, complex mineral fertilizers are applied containing potassium and phosphorus.

Important! There are special complex fertilizers for feeding chrysanthemums.

How bush chrysanthemums winter

In regions with warm winters, spray chrysanthemums winter well under minimal cover. Before wintering, all shoots are cut off at a height of 10-15 cm from the ground, huddled, and then the plants are covered with a thick layer of fallen leaves or straw, covered with spruce branches. In cold regions, the bushes are dug up together with a lump of earth on the roots, put in boxes and stored in a basement at a temperature of + 2-5 ° C.

In cold regions, it is better to dig up bush chrysanthemums for the winter and put them indoors.

Potted and indoor chrysanthemums are also pruned before winter and stored in a cool room. During wintering, the plants rest, no manipulations are carried out with them, with the exception of rare soil moisture to prevent the roots from completely drying out.

Reproduction of spray chrysanthemums

For reproduction of bush chrysanthemums, you can use the seed method, as well as one of the vegetative methods:

  1. Seed method. In ornamental gardening, it is rarely used, since it is long, and the resulting seedlings do not always retain their parental varietal characteristics. Most often, the seed method is used by breeders when developing new varieties. Planting is done in January. For growing seedlings, a container filled with special soil is used. The seeds are spread over the soil surface, without deepening, and then moistened with water from a spray bottle. The container is removed to a warm, dark place. The first shoots appear in approximately 2-2.5 weeks. After the seedlings grow up, they are dived into separate pots, and then planted in a permanent place.

    To obtain seedlings from seeds, it is convenient to use special containers.

  2. Division of the bush. Shrub chrysanthemums grow quickly, so the bush needs to be divided about once every 3 years, in late spring. Using a knife, the rhizome is divided into several parts, each of which must contain shoots with its own roots, and then they are planted at a considerable distance from each other.
  3. Cuttings. Chrysanthemum root shoots, containing at least 3 internodes, are excellent for harvesting cuttings. Carefully cut cuttings are placed in a nutrient mixture of chernozem, humus and sand, mixed in a ratio of 2: 1: 0.5, deepening them by about 3 cm.The container with planting material is covered with a film, simulating greenhouse conditions, and kept, periodically moistening the soil, about 1 month. During this time, the cuttings will form their own root system. After that, they can be dropped off at their permanent place.

    Chrysanthemum cuttings root perfectly if the algorithm is followed correctly

Diseases and pests of bush chrysanthemums

Shrub chrysanthemums are more susceptible to fungal diseases, which are the result of improper care or the vagaries of the weather:

  1. Gray rot. Most often it is found on the petals in the form of brown spots, gradually spreading to the entire aerial part of the plant. The affected areas should be cut and burned, and the plants should be treated with fungicides.

    Areas of the plant affected by gray rot must be removed

  2. Powdery mildew. The disease is detected by a characteristic light bloom on the leaves. It is often the result of sharp fluctuations in temperature and humidity, and may indicate a lack of nutrition. Infected plants are removed, and adjacent plantings are sprayed with soapy water with the addition of soda ash.

    Powdery mildew can be detected by the characteristic whitish bloom on the leaves.

  3. White rust. It appears on the leaves in the form of numerous rounded spots of light color, which eventually become brown.If found, the affected leaves must be cut and burned, and the bushes must be treated with fungicides - antifungal drugs (Bordeaux liquid, copper oxychloride, etc.).

    Yellowish dots on the leaves are a sign of rust.

Of the pests on bush chrysanthemums, the following insects can most often be found:

  1. Greenhouse or brown chrysanthemum aphid. These small insects feed on young foliage, buds, juicy greens, slowing down the growth of the plant and impairing its appearance. They can be detected by deformed leaves and small holes in them, as well as by damaged flower buds. They fight aphids by spraying the bushes with various insecticidal preparations.

    Brown aphids can damage the aerial areas of chrysanthemums

  2. Spider mite. A sucking insect, which can be detected by the spider's nests, entangling the tops of the shoots. Such a neighborhood strongly oppresses the plants, chrysanthemums get sick, turn yellow and dry. Against ticks, special agents are produced - acaricides, with which the plantings should be treated.

    A sign of a spider mite - the tops of the shoots entangled in cobwebs

  3. Meadow bug. Most often, its appearance is recognized by the characteristic swelling on the leaves, leading to their deformation and death. The result is a loss of decorativeness and lack of flowering. Such insecticides as Decis, Karate, Inta-Vir, etc. are used against the bug.

    Meadow bug is a sucking insect that damages leaves

Photo of spray chrysanthemums

Below are some photographs illustrating the use of spray chrysanthemums in ornamental gardening.

A multi-colored river of bush flowers is a great way to zoning a site

Plants, as decoration elements, can even be used in a potted form

Non-standard design move - a flow of flowers will look great at the entrance to the garden

A multi-colored border will be a great way to highlight the path to the house.

A flower bed with bushes is a classic solution for decorating a plot or a separate corner in a park

Conclusion

Chrysanthemum bush in the skillful hands of a garden designer can become a real highlight of a personal plot. The variety of shapes and colors allows for surprisingly accurate selection of colors and composition. Chrysanthemum bush is an excellent way to prolong summer and preserve many bright colors in the garden until the very cold weather.


Watch the video: Grow Chrysanthemum from Seeds. Dont throw away the dried flowers (October 2022).

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