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Mushroom mushrooms grow in most parts of our country, and are found in many countries of Europe, as well as on other continents. Moreover, they are divided into edible, conditionally edible and inedible. There are poisonous milkers, which are strictly forbidden to eat. But even edible such "gifts of the forest" are not eaten raw.
Description of mushrooms
Millers are a lamellar species of mushrooms from the family Syryozhkovye. Translated from Latin, this name means "giving milk." These mushrooms are named so because when cut or broken, they secrete milky juice, reminiscent of milk in color and consistency.
They belong to the category of conditionally edible.. A hat of an ordinary milkman in a radius can be from 4 to 11 cm, glistens even in dry sunny weather, circles on the entire surface are clearly visible on it. Its color changes with the age of the lactarius: young mushrooms are painted in a dark blue color, their hats have a convex shape, the color of the old ones is lilac or brown, later yellow or rusty, it becomes flatter, sometimes even depressed. The surface is very dense, sometimes small pits may appear on it. The edges of the cap can be wavy or curved, often wrapped inward.
Legs reach a height of 8 - 10 cm, gray or rusty, their shape is cylindrical, empty inside, can be swollen, often covered with mucus, and gummy to the touch. Frequent plates are visible on the underside, their color is yellow or cream, interspersed with ocher color.
The pulp is dense, but very brittle. It crumbles easily, since there are practically no fibers in its composition. Her color is white, but near the surface - with a brown tint, near the legs - with a red tint. Milky juice gives the pulp a characteristic bitterness, in contact with air, its color turns yellow with a greenish tint. Its characteristic aroma, similar to the smell of fresh fish. The spores are elliptical, their ornamentation is spinal or warty. Spore powder is yellow or cream colored.
Most milkers are considered inedible, as their juice is too eater. But to distinguish the types of these mushrooms is quite difficult, because they are very similar to each other, sometimes even experienced mushroom pickers confuse varieties of milkers, and beginner mushroom pickers prefer not to put them in a basket.
There are no doubles in these fungi.
Other names for lactic
These mushrooms have a lot of names in the people: smoothies, alders, hollows, yellow hollows, gray breasts. They are also called by the color of their hats.
Distribution and period of bearing fruit
The first milkmen appear in the second decade of July, and the last such mushrooms can be collected in the last decade of September. But these mushrooms begin to grow actively in rainy cool weather.
Millers prefer humid places, usually grow in lowlands in coniferous, mixed or deciduous forests, usually collect them either under coniferous trees or under birch trees. They usually hide in tall grass or among moss. Insects usually do not eat the caps of these mushrooms. Also found along the banks of swamps or ponds. In hot climates, they usually do not grow; they prefer temperate latitudes. Therefore, the place of growth of milkers is forests in European countries, the middle and central regions of our country, in Western Siberia, the Urals, and also in the Far East.
Features of the lactarius vulgaris
Edible species of milkers
There are a lot of edible species of the lactarius, but it is not always possible to distinguish them. Therefore, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with photographs of all these species before you go into the forest for a "silent hunt."
Milky Milky Milk
This species is quite rare in forests. Usually it settles on heavy clay soils, or in well-lit forests, go among shrubs. The burning-milky lactar grows more often singly, less often - in groups from the first decade of August to the first decade of October. The hats are small - up to 6 cm in diameter, smooth to the touch, slightly concave in the center, gray-beige in color. Milky juice is very caustic, white in color, does not change color even when in contact with air. The legs are hollow, cylindrical in shape, the same color with a hat.
These mushrooms belong to 3 categories, it is only salted, but first you need to soak and boil it.
This type of lactarius is also rare in forests. Alone, these fungi do not grow, but only in groups from the second decade of July to the first decade of October. Moreover, their growth is not affected by weather conditions. They grow well on moist soils in all types of forests.
The cap is tuberous, convex; in old mushrooms, it is funnel-shaped, and in the center retains a tubercle. Its edges are wavy. The surface color is brown with a red tint, or red, and in the center is purple with a burgundy tint. Records with spores - yellow with a pinkish tint. And old mushrooms have a brown tint.
This mushroom is conditionally edible. The size of the hat is medium (about 5 cm in radius), in young milkers it is convex in shape, in old ones it is concave. Surface color - gray with an olive tint, but may be brown.
Mushrooms are found either among deciduous trees, or among pines and firs from mid-summer to early fall.
Other types of edible milkers:
- gray pink;
Where do the milkmen grow
These types of milkers are dangerous to human health, so it is better not to collect them in your basket. To distinguish them from edible varieties of such mushrooms, you need to carefully consider their photos and read the description.
The caps of these mushrooms are up to 4-5 cm in radius, in young mushrooms they are slightly convex in shape, but gradually they straighten, the edges are fleecy, slightly concave inward.
The surface is sticky with enough mucus. Sometimes you can see several circles on the hat. Its color is yellow with a rusty or brownish tint. When pressed, changes color to mauve or violet brown. The plates are of medium thickness, cream colored, changing color when pressed on purple with a brown or gray tint. Milky juice is white at first, but after a while becomes lilac, tastes sweet at first, but then becomes caustic.
The leg is cylindrical in shape, empty inside, sticky, the same color as the hat.
The cap is up to 3 cm in radius, fleshy, flat, but with age it becomes more open, the edges are lowered in young fungi, but straighten with age. The color of the hat is gray. The pulp is white or yellowish, the spores are yellow.
These mushrooms grow near the alder in groups from early August to late September.There are other types of inedible milkers:
- pale sticky;
- dark brown;
- watery milky.
The benefits and harms of lactation
The composition of these fungi includes such valuable amino acids as tyrosine, glutamine, leucine, arginine. They contain fatty acids:
In addition, they include phosphatides, essential oils, as well as lipoids. Millers contain glycogen, fiber, but they do not contain starch.
Of the macro- and micronutrients, K, P, Ca, J, Zn, Cu, As are found in the lactor. And in some varieties, an antibiotic such as lactarioviolin was found, which helps fight the causative agent of tuberculosis.
How to distinguish a milkman from russula
Different types of edible milkers are usually either salted or pickled. At the same time, fermentation is faster in mushrooms, therefore these pickled mushrooms are the most delicious. Usually, before pickling or pickling, they are either soaked for a long time or boiled in several waters so that the causticity or bitterness of their juice disappears. And only then you can engage in their procurement. And in the northern countries, these mushrooms are cooked at the stake - baked on skewers at the stake (or on an ordinary grill).
Edible species of milkers are most often only salted or pickled, so they are not considered universal mushrooms. But you need to carefully collect them so as not to put inedible or poisonous varieties in the basket.