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The tomato is a native of South America, where it grows wild as a perennial vine. In the harsher European conditions, the tomato can only grow as an annual, if not grown in a greenhouse.
The Italian name of the overseas curiosity pomo d'oro and the original Aztec "tomatl" through the French tomate gave equivalent names to this berry in Russian: tomato and tomato.
Wild tomato in the Galapagos Islands
The tomato introduced to Europe was originally only an indeterminate plant, that is, growing continuously as long as it was warm enough. At home or in a greenhouse, such a tomato may well grow into a long vine or tree. But the plant does not tolerate frost at all, it is relatively cold-resistant (papaya, for example, requires an air temperature of at least 15 ° C). When frozen, tomato bushes die, so for a long time it was believed that tomatoes cannot be grown in the northern regions. But by the end of the 19th century, Russian gardeners had learned to grow tomatoes even in the northern provinces.
In Russia, tomatoes have to be grown through seedlings or in greenhouses. Often, seedlings of tomato varieties intended for open ground must first be hardened in a greenhouse, planting them on an open bed only in June, when the air temperature is already stable above 10 ° C.
The optimal choice for open ground are determinant tomato varieties that stop growing when they reach a genetic limit. These varieties are not very suitable for greenhouses, although they are planted around the perimeter, since, due to the low growth, the bushes of these varieties are not able to use the entire usable area of the greenhouse. At the same time, indeterminate varieties of tomatoes planted in open ground do not reveal their full potential, since they do not have enough for this warm season.
True, determinant tomato varieties often have a drawback that indeterminate varieties do not: the fruits become smaller towards the top. But there is also an advantage: the growth of the main stem stops after the formation of several inflorescences and these varieties of tomatoes yield much more intensively than indeterminate ones.
When choosing varieties for open ground, the region in which the tomatoes will be grown should be taken into account. If in the southern regions one can hardly pay attention to early ripening, then in the northern regions it is a very important factor that often determines the choice of a tomato variety.
For open ground, especially in the Trans-Ural regions, it is better to select tomato varieties belonging to the groups:
- super-early with a growing season of up to 75 days;
- early maturing. 75 to 90 days;
- mid-season. 90 to 100 days.
Tomato seedlings are usually sown in March. If the deadline has been missed, it is necessary to pick up earlier varieties of tomatoes. In the northern regions, with late sowing, it is better to abandon mid-ripening varieties, in the south from late-ripening ones.
Determinant varieties of tomatoes for open ground are the overwhelming majority of all tomato varieties that are sown in open-air beds. Indeterminate in open beds are much less common.
Determinant and indeterminate tomatoes:
Determinate outdoor tomatoes
Tomato "Little Red Riding Hood"
Early maturing for the south and mid-maturing for more northern regions, a tomato variety with a growing season of 95 days. The bush is 70 cm high, does not require pinching. The tomato does not require special feeding, but it will be happy to apply fertilizers. The yield of one bush is 2 kg.
Tomatoes are not large, maximum 70 g. The skin of tomatoes is thin, they are well suited for eating fresh or preparing assorted vegetables for the winter. They are not very good for whole-fruit preservation due to their thin skin.
The variety is resistant to many diseases of tomatoes, including late blight, and to temperature fluctuations. Can tolerate short-term drops in temperature.
Tomato "Alpatieva 905 a"
Mid-season tomato variety. The bush is low, up to 45 cm, determinant, standard. For this tomato, the mid-ripeness is determined by the southern regions, since its growing season is 110 days, although, according to the register, it is recommended for outdoor cultivation both in the Central Lane and in the Ural region and Eastern Siberia.
Tomatoes are small, 60 g. 3-4 ovaries are formed on one cluster. The variety is fruitful and has industrial value. 2 kg of tomatoes are removed from one bush, planting 4-5 bushes per m².
Densely leafy erect tomato bushes do not require pinching and need a garter only with a very large number of tomatoes. After the bush reaches a height of 20 cm, the lower leaves are cut off from it.
In the register, the tomato variety is declared as a salad, although it will not impress with a special taste. The tomato has a characteristic tomato flavor. But it is good for winter harvesting.
For this reason, the variety has advantages over other salad tomato varieties.
The advantages of the variety are also:
- amicable ripening (in the first 2 weeks up to 30% of the harvest);
- resistance to sudden changes in temperature;
- undemanding to growing conditions, which is why "Alpatieva 905 a" is an excellent simulator for novice gardeners.
Since this is a variety and not a hybrid, its seeds can be left in for the next year. To collect seeds, 2-3 tomatoes are left on the bush until fully ripe. They must be removed before they begin to creep out at hand.
Seeds are removed from the tomato and left to ferment for 2-3 days, after which they are washed well with clean water and dried. Tomato seeds remain viable for 7-9 years. But the optimal age of tomato seeds is from 1 to 3 years. Further, germination begins to decline.
Tomato "Caspar F1"
Determinant high yielding tomato hybrid bred in Holland with a growing season of 100 days. The height of the bush is 0.5-1 m. The stem of "Caspar F1" is inclined to creep along the ground and produce a significant number of stepchildren. To avoid excessive overgrowth of the bush, it is formed by pinching in two stems.
Important! The stepsons must be broken off, leaving a stump about 1.5 cm long.
It is the breaking off of the stepson in this way that inhibits the appearance of a new sprout in the same place. It is not necessary to pluck or pull out the stepson.
8 bushes of this tomato variety are planted per square meter. The bush must be tied up so that the tomatoes do not come into contact with the ground.
Red tomatoes, elongated, weighing 130 gr. Designed for open ground.
A new variety of tomato, included in the register only in 2015. Suitable for growing in all regions of Russia. The hybrid is undemanding to care, suitable for novice vegetable growers. Loves abundant and frequent watering.
Tomato is considered universal, but when preparing salads, the tough skin must be removed. Well suited for preservation, as the dense skin prevents the tomato from cracking. Ideal for preservation in its own juice.
Resistant to tomato diseases and pests.
Tomato "Junior F1"
Ultra-early ripening tomato hybrid from Semko Junior, which bears fruit already 80 days after germination. Designed for cultivation in small farms and subsidiary plots.
The bush is superdeterminate, 0.5 m high. 7-8 ovaries are formed on the brush. The bushes of this tomato are planted at 6 pieces per m².
Tomatoes weighing up to 100 g. Productivity 2 kg from one bush.
With a large number of fruits, tomatoes grow small, with a small number - large. The total mass per unit area remains practically unchanged.
"Junior" is a universal variety of tomatoes, recommended, among other things, for fresh consumption.
The advantages of a hybrid are:
- resistance to cracking;
- early maturity;
- good taste;
- disease resistance.
Due to the early ripening of tomatoes, the harvest is harvested even before the spread of phytophthora.
How to get a harvest several times larger than usual
To obtain a large yield, it is necessary to form a powerful root system in the plant. The method of such formation was developed more than 30 years ago. The tomato bush has the ability to form additional roots, and this is the basis for the method of forming additional roots.
For this, the seedlings are planted in the "lying" position, that is, not only the root is placed in the groove, but also 2-3 lower stems with the leaves removed. Pour 10 cm of earth on top. Seedlings in grooves must be laid strictly from south to north so that the seedlings, stretching towards the sun, rise from the ground and form into a normal, vertically growing bush.
Roots are formed on buried stems, which are included in the general root system of the bush and are superior in efficiency and size to the main one.
The second way to get the roots you want is even easier. It is enough to let the lower stepsons grow longer, then bend them to the ground and sprinkle them with soil with a layer of 10 cm, having previously cut off unnecessary leaves. The stepchildren quickly take root and grow, and after a month they become practically indistinguishable from the main bush either in height or in the number of ovaries. At the same time, they bear fruit abundantly in the immediate vicinity of the ground.
If the seedlings have grown too high, they are planted in the ground so that the top is 30 cm above the soil, after cutting off all the lower leaves 3-4 days before planting, but leaving cuttings a couple of centimeters long from them, which will later fall off by themselves. A bed with such seedlings is not loosened in the summer. Roots accidentally exposed during watering are sprinkled with peat.
Mistakes when growing tomatoes
How to get a good harvest
Tatiana Rizaeva, Kolyvanovo village
We plant mainly "plums", tomatoes of those varieties that produce long tomatoes. My family loves canned tomatoes and cucumbers in winter. We have been planting for a couple of years, it has not even been registered yet when we first bought it. Very pleased. True, contrary to advertising, the skin must be removed from it when you take out salted from the jar in winter. In the salad, although it is tough, it is normally chewed along with the pulp (and at the same time stimulates the intestines), and scalded with boiling water is separated from the pulp and there are only two options: either eat the pulp and discard the skin, or choke on an empty skin without pulp. Of course, everyone chooses the first one.
Valery Nekrasov, p. Shentala
Recently, only "Junior" has been saving us. Late blight is raging with terrible force, but it is not possible to fully comply with the crop rotation. On six hundred square meters. After all, I would like to have my own potatoes at least a little, and eggplants, and they all get sick with this muck. Only now we manage to remove the tomatoes without losses. And they taste good. They also go well for salting. We pick the last green tomatoes and salt them. In general, we will probably dwell on this variety in the future.
For open ground, it is better to choose the earliest determinant varieties of tomatoes, then there will be a guarantee that they will have time to ripen. And today there are a lot of varieties, there are for every taste and color.