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Autumn planting of trees and shrubs is practiced by gardeners not only in our country, but also in Ukraine and Belarus. The most appropriate autumn landing in the middle lane, including the suburbs. During this period, it is allowed to plant bushes of berry bushes and young ornamental horticultural crops, stone fruit and fruit plants, fruit seedlings, as well as coniferous shrubs and perennial deciduous trees.
Features of autumn planting of fruit crops
Correct planting of fruit crops in the optimal time in the fall guarantees a high percentage of survival and the production of a highly productive plant in the future. Among other things, planting fruit seedlings in autumn has a large number of advantages, among which the following are most significant:
- in the fall, a significant part of nurseries, as well as amateur gardeners, begin to sell freshly dug planting material, which guarantees a wide selection and affordable cost;
- it is easy to assess the quality of the purchased material by conducting a visual inspection of both the aboveground part and the root system of the plant;
- autumn planting does not cause many problems even for beginner gardeners, and autumn rains are able to provide fruit seedlings with the necessary level of humidity and fairly comfortable conditions for rooting;
- timely planted plants are able to grow thin absorbent roots before stable frosts, which has a positive effect on spring growth;
- there is no need to save planting material until spring, using fairly sophisticated methods of snowing or digging into the ground;
- Autumn planting frees up time in the spring for other equally important jobs, including crops.
Nevertheless, it is very important to consider that not all fruit trees take root well when planting in the winter, so you should definitely know what types of garden crops can be planted in the autumn.
|Type of fruit crop||Latin||Varieties for planting in the fall||Row spacing||Distance between plants|
|Pear||Pyrus||Cathedral, Lada, Michurinsky Beauty, Muscovite, Dressy Efimova, Otradnenskaya, In Memory of Vavilov, Severyanka, Severyanka Chelyabinsk and Chizhovskaya||From 4 to 8 meters, depending on varietal characteristics and rootstock type||From one and a half to five meters, depending on varietal characteristics and type of stock|
|Apple tree||Mālus||Grushovka Moscow, Antonovka vulgaris, Grandmother’s, Cinnamon Striped, Korobovka, Bessemyanka Michurinskaya, Lingonberry, July Chernenko, Melba, Grushovka Early, Autumn Joy , "Russian Woman", "Young Naturalist", "Cypress", "Student" and "Northern Sinap"|
|Plum||Prúnus||“Artistic”, “Joy”, “Meteor”, “Over-the-Ear”, “Memory of Timiryazev”, “Etude”||3-4 meters||2.5-3.5 meters|
|Apricot||Prúnus armeniáca||"Hardy", "Krasnoshchekiy", "Beloved", "Honey", "Russian", "Snegiryok" and "Northern Triumph"|
|Peach||Prúnus pérsica||"Fluffy early", "Juicy" and "Winter-hardy."|
|Sweet cherry||Prúnus avíum||Tyutchevka, Fatezh, Ovstuzhenka and Bryansk|
|Cherry||Prúnus cerásus||Zagrebinskaya, Sverdlovchanka, Ural Standard, Gridnevskaya, Michurin Pole, Generous and Lighthouse|
Also in autumn, it is allowed to plant such berry bushes as:
- black currant, white and red;
- sea buckthorn.
Features of autumn planting of ornamental plants
The planting season when growing ornamental crops in our country begins in mid-September, at the stage of slowing down life processes. Thus, properly planted crops in the spring do not spend their energy on rooting, but on active development.
Experts recommend giving preference to the autumn planting of decorative plants grown in containers. It is during this period that almost all conifers, including spruces and pines, as well as large-sized plants, which can be planted even during the onset of minor frosts, take root and quickly take root.
How to plant trees and shrubs in autumn
During this period, an intensive growth of the root system occurs after transplantation, and the young plant is able to actively increase the root mass lost during the transplantation. An exception is birch seedlings, the planting of which for a permanent place is recommended to be moved to spring.
Optimal timing and landing technology
On the territory of central Russia, autumn planting is made from mid-September to the second decade of October. Landing in the northern regions and regions characterized by unfavorable soil and climatic conditions should begin in the first ten days of September and end before the beginning of October. The southern regions have more favorable weather conditions in the autumn period, so the main planting period here lasts from October to about the second decade of November.
However, the most important condition for the correct determination of the best time for planting seedlings of any crops is the period of biological dormancy, which is accompanied by the end of leaf fall. It is very important to remember that seedlings dug up to the leaf fall stage have unripe shoots, therefore they are frozen in the winter in the first place.
The technology of autumn planting may vary depending on the age of the planting material, as well as varietal and species characteristics of the plant. Nevertheless, There are general rules that allow you to perform planting operations with a minimum risk of plant death in the winter:
- site preparation for autumn planting should be carried out in advance, at least a couple of weeks before planting;
- if necessary, a deep digging of the soil and the most thorough removal of all weed vegetation is carried out;
- if indicators of soil fertility do not correspond to the recommended parameters for growing a garden crop, then it is required to introduce basic complex fertilizers;
- the dimensions of the pre-prepared landing pit must necessarily be about one and a half or two times larger than the diameter of the earthen coma around the root system of the planted plant;
- a very good result is obtained by spilling the soil in the planting pit with a solution based on such growth stimulants as Zircon or Kornevin;
- after planting, watering is mandatory, as well as mulching of trunk circles with high-quality organic matter.
When planting plants that have an open root system, it is important to ensure that the root system does not dry out. It is also impossible to deepen the root of the neck of trees. Landing of large-sized plants has its own characteristics and requires the mandatory installation of special supports or stretch marks, which will reduce the negative impact of strong winds and allow the plant to take root as soon as possible.
Protection against frost and rodents
Equally important is the quality protection of planted fruit or ornamental crops from severe frosts, as well as damage by rodents:
- young, growing far from the stem of the branch on apples and pears, should be tied to the trunk, which will protect them from breaking off in the winter;
- branches and shoots on young bushes of currant and gooseberry must be pulled together with a soft wire or a strong rope;
- shrubs of other berry plants and ornamental plants are also recommended to be tied with twine, which will improve their overwintering, and also helps to preserve fruit buds;
- decorative heat-loving exotics need to create a shelter that should be provided to plants immediately before the onset of stable frost;
- for the winter period, trunks are best covered with natural mulching materials, which can be straw, hay, wood chips and sawdust, which allow moisture and air to pass through well, but protect the plant from severe frosts;
- the best way to protect fruit and ornamental plants from damage by hares is still fencing the site with special galvanized nets;
- To combat voles, it is recommended to fill in their holes with special baits represented by wheat grains poisoned by zinc phosphide.
It should be noted that, according to experts, it is not practical to use agrofibre and film to protect conifers. In this case, it is preferable to use a rare burlap. Important to remember, that autumn whitewashing is of practical importance, and allows protecting the planted trees from getting sunburns in February-March.
Tips & Tricks
In the autumn period, when planting, seedlings can be fed exclusively with phosphorus fertilizers, stimulating the proper development of the root system. The increased concentration of nitrogen-containing fertilizers in the soil often becomes fatal for the plant, which can enter the repeated vegetation and does not have time to prepare for the winter period. For the same reason, manure should not be introduced during autumn plantings.
What plants to plant before winter
A big mistake is also the autumn planting of seedlings grown and brought from more northern regions, as well as varieties and hybrids that do not have high winter hardiness. As a rule, such plants do not have time to take root and acclimatize well during the short fall season, as a result of which they freeze out in the first winter or stop in their development.